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The weather here has not been very spring like, unless you compare it to spring in the Artic. The snow disappeared following a brief warm period; however, we are back to daytime high temperatures of 0C – 5C. Not conducive to working in an unheated garage. In fact, we took a little break and went skiing in the Rockies for a few days. I have never seen the ski runs in such good shape at the end of April.
I finally got my rear view mirror installed. As Lloyd and Mathieu imply, more force was required. This ultimately involved the use of a small bottle jack located between the front seats pushing up on about two feet of 2x4 with some rags between the top of the 2x4 and the mirror base. There was no way I could apply enough force lying on the seats and pushing up on the mirror base with my hand. Lying on the seat, my arm was fully extended just to hold the mirror in place.
I think I previously noted that I wasn’t too happy with the arrangement I had for the fuses, relays and fuel injector resistors on the right side fender. As luck would have it, I stumbled across this little fuse panel while looking for something else.
It has 10 spots for AT type fuses along with some spares. As a bonus, it has LEDs to monitor the status of the fuses (LED lights up for a blown fuse). I cut out the spots for the spare fuses and mounted my fuel injection main relay and fuel pump relay where the spares were located. I am using two fuses for the fuel injectors (I am doing bank fire on the Megasquirt), one fuse for the Megasquirt EMS, one fuse for the O2 sensor heater, one fuse for the fuel pump (I eliminated the fuse block on the left fender) and a master fuse for the FI system. I also installed the fuse for the electric radiator fan in the panel which leaves me with 3 spares for future use. Not all the fuses are installed in the photo below.
I mounted the fuse panel and injector resistors on a short section of aluminum angle which I installed on the right side fender. The fuse panel has a weather resistant top cover. The connections on the bottom of the panel are exposed; however, I used shielded female spade connectors so it is a definite improvement over stock and looks a little cleaner than the previous arrangement that I had.
The car has not been operational since about 1982 so, even though I checked the wiring harness carefully before installation, I decided to play it safe with the first test energization. Rather than power up using an automotive battery which could supply several hundred amps of current (think arc welder) if there was a nasty short, I used the 14.4 V NimH battery from my cordless drill (which can still provide some pretty nasty current) for testing. I connected the battery to the distribution block on the left fender. By the way, if you ever lose one of the screws from that distribution block, they are not SAE threads. They are metric M6-1.0. It took me about 10 minutes of trying to screw a ¼” NF pan head machine screw into the block before I got my pitch gauge out and discovered that it didn’t match up with anything on my non metric gauge. I love it when they mix metric and SAE on the same car!
Testing showed some problems. When I turned the parking lights on, none of the lights lit up except for the right front signal light and the right indicator light on the dash! The signal lights also did not operate. That required some head scratching. After disconnecting stuff, the problem seemed to be originating in the right rear tail light assembly. I had done some repairs on the rear wiring harness when I removed a trailer light adaptor which had been spliced into the harness, so I thought that perhaps I screwed up the repairs, so I opened up the harness in the repair area, but, couldn’t find a problem. Long story short, it turned out to be a grounding problem. When I reinstalled the metal carrier for the tail lights in the body, I used nice flat washers to avoid scratching my new paint job. The result was that the metal carrier was not grounding to the body. Power was flowing through the right tail light filament into the metal carrier, back through the right rear signal light to the right front signal light which was well grounded. The right front signal light was the only one that lit up because I am using a LED light assembly which is low current / high resistance compared to the other conventional bulbs in the circuit. I replaced the flat washers with star style lock washers which bite nicely through the paint establishing a good ground and fixing both the tail light and signal light problem.
The next item I discovered was that the four way flasher was inoperative. This mystified me as the signal lights were now working. Turns out that the four way flasher and signal light circuits are powered from separate fuses (four way being energized all the time). The four way flasher is powered off the third fuse on the right which also powers the brake lights (which also were not working). A quick check showed that the fuse looked good confirmed by the fact that there was +12v on both sides of the fuse. I checked for voltage at the brake light switch (because it is easiest to get at) and indeed there was 12 volts on the supply side. I jumpered the switch but the brake lights would not light so I went to the back, pulled the light bulbs and checked for voltage, + 12 volts. I put the bulbs back in, they did not light. What was going on! I went back to the brake light switch, pulled the jumper and attached the voltmeter. Again + 12 volts. However, when I applied the brakes to operate the switch the voltage went to zero. So, I attached the voltmeter to the load side of the fuse again, still + 12 volts. However, when I applied the brakes the voltage went to zero. I checked the voltage on the supply side of the fuse and I still had +12 volts, even when I applied the brakes and there was 0 on the other side of the fuse. That is interesting! I pulled the fuse and discovered that the end of the fuse had significant pitting which was resulting in a high resistance connection. The connection was good enough to get a voltage measurement but the voltage would drop to zero as soon as there was the smallest amount of current flow. Replacement of the fuse solved the problem. I checked the rest of the fuses and they were all fine. It is not obvious why this is the only one that had pitting. Perhaps the clip tension is too light or the fuse was not properly seated in the clip.
The presumably good fuse.
Photo showing the pitting on the end of the fuse.
Further testing demonstrated that I had no reverse lights. The obvious candidate here was the missing piece of wire from the connector on the fire wall down to the reverse light switch. However, that did not fix the problem. Jumpering the connector on the fire wall to ground resulted in the brake lights operating, so the problem is not the reverse light relay or the vehicle wiring, it looks like the reverse light switch is the problem. This drives me crazy as I tested the switch for operation when I replaced the gaskets and seals on the transmission. Is it possible to access the switch with the transmission in place or do I have to disconnect the drive shaft and tilt everything down to get at the switch? I am not looking forward to dealing with this.
The rest of the electrical system appears to be operative (will probably never be able to really check the rear defrost as this isn’t planned as a winter car). I can’t yet test the dash completely; however, I have been able to program the fuel gauge to match the Volvo sender, the voltmeter is working properly and I successfully programmed low and high alarms into the oil pressure and temperature gauge.
My radiator fan is going to be controlled by the Megasquirt. For people who are using electric fans, what have you used for your ‘on’ temperature setting? The Volvo thermostat does not start to open until the water temperature reaches 82C, so I was initially thinking that the on setting should be somewhere around 82 – 85 C. The Megasquirt gets its coolant temperature reading off of the old Djet sensor at the front of the block. I think that it is measuring the temperature of coolant at the inlet to the thermostat; but, I am not sure. If it is measuring the pump discharge temperature, this may alter the required setting. Also, what is the normal operating temperature as measured at the sensor at the back of the block? The Volvo shop manual says that the white mark on the left side of the Volvo temperature gauge corresponds to 70 C and the division between green and red on the right side corresponds to 100 C, so I am guessing that normal would probably be around 85 C?
Last edited by 142 Guy; 05-05-2014 at 02:15 PM.
Great job on the progress, I like the detail in which you describe everything.
Have you solidly grounded your engine yet? If not, that explains it. If so, you might have another problem with paint on the connections. Double check I guess.
Originally Posted by 142 Guy
2003 C70 T5M Convertible
- Eibachs, Koni FSDs, Enkei RSF5s, OBX downpipe, Snabb intake, RIP kit, & drop-in intercooler, Quaife LSD, 19T, Green Giants, 22 psi Hilton tune.2006 V70 2.5T
- Ice White - Oak Arena, (almost) bone stock daily driver. 1966 122s
- Collectible project, restoration and many mods on the way.2005 V50 T5 AWD
- Daughter's first car. No mods unless she does 'em herself.
The ground strap from the engine to the body channel on the left side of the car is in place. I tested the starter motor for the first time yesterday. The solenoid engaged and the starter motor spun the engine over quickly, so I think that the motor is well grounded to the body. I will double check since flakey grounding can screw up the sensor readings on the Megasquirt, although, I have isolated and brought the individual sensor grounds back separately to the Megasquirt which is grounded to the same ground point on the intake manifold that the Djet used. So engine to body grounding problems should not mess up the Megasquirt ; but, it doesn't hurt to double check.
Originally Posted by LloydDobler
Its still pretty cool here, so I don't feel like jacking up and groveling around under the car to figure out what is going on with the reverse switch. When I replaced the gaskets in the transmission and OD, I repainted the transmission. It is possible that I have a grounding problem between the switch body and the transmission proper. Instead of working on the reverse light switch, I am going to finish off loading the initial tune into the Megasquirt and carry out a test of the fuel pump and related plumbing (leak check). Next time I post, I may have a sort of running engine!
Still at it!
As part of doing my set-up for the fuel injection system, I had to do a free air calibration of the Oxygen sensor which requires removing it from its bung in the exhaust system. Since the sensor is located in the same vicinity as the reverse light switch, I decided to try and kill two birds with one stone. With the car jacked up, there is a reasonable amount of room to reach up to the top of the transmission and access the reverse light switch. With the aid of an ohmmeter, I confirmed that that the switch was faulty and that it was not a problem with grounding the switch body and the transmission. If you have an M40, there is probably enough room that you could use a stubby Phillips screwdriver to remove the retaining screws. With the M41, its pretty tight and I had to use a mini hex bit ratchet. With the right tool, it only took a couple of minutes to pop the switch assembly off.
Calling this thing a switch is glorifying it a bit. The switch assembly is a mostly empty box with a spring contact mounted in its side. When you select reverse, the selector shaft for the reverse gear pops out the back of the transmission case and hits the spring contact, creating a ground for the reverse light relay which then energizes the reverse lights. I didn’t take a photo of mine; but, I did grab this off the Iroll site
The part circled in red is actually a tightly wound coil spring which bends over when the selector shaft contacts it. My contact had become permanently bent over (not sure how that occurred) and was no longer contacting the selector shaft. I carefully bent the spring back up and reassembled everything. So far it has been working fine. Since spring steel doesn’t take well to being permanently deformed, I am thinking that I should plan for the contacts eventual replacement. The contact is about $15; however, the shipping will also be about $15 so I will probably wait until I have a few other items that I need.
I finished off the battery installation on the car. I used #4 welding cable (Princess Auto was having a sale on 25’ lengths so it was the cheapest solution) to run a + cable to the starter motor and a negative cable to the point on the body where the engine ground strap is mounted. Rather than take the supply for the distribution block on the left fender well from the starter motor lug, I ran a separate #10 cable from the battery to the power distribution block. I did this to isolate the power supply for the rest of the car from the voltage drop in the starter motor cable and decouple the rest of the car (in particular the fuel injection system) from voltage transients that could be caused by the cranking current. I put a 40 amp fuse in a weather tight holder in this supply mounted under the parcel shelf by the battery. The fuse serves to isolate the battery if there is a fault in the car’s primary wiring. With the fuse removed, it also provides a convenient anti-theft device and a means of isolating the battery during storage.
The three cables exit the trunk through an existing hole just next to the drain hole on the left side. Underneath the car, I wrapped the three cables in some of that semi rigged corrugated plastic split loom and fixed the loom to the bottom of the car about every 12 inches using insulated P clamps. Its mostly tucked up in the edge of the driveshaft tunnel or along the body channel so chances of it snagging something are minimal (there is lots of other stuff that will be dragging before the wiring takes a hit!
From my days as an Engineer doing project start-up, I am a big fan of pre testing individual systems rather than the doing a complete system start-up, which quite often involved the smoke test. To this end, I powered up the fuel injection system external wiring (no Megasquirt installed) and grounded out the wires to the Megasquirt which control the fuel pump relay and the cooling fan. The cooling fan started up and I got appropriate noises from the fuel pump (no fuel in the system). The fuel tank was dry so I purchased a few litres of gas for the purpose of testing the fuel piping. I installed a fuel pressure gauge in the feed to the cold start injector (which isn’t used by the Megasquirt) to confirm the operation of the Datsun 280Z pressure regulator. I made sure my fire extinguisher was handy and grounded out the fuel pump relay to prime the system. The fuel pump made the appropriate noises; but, no fuel was showing up. I jacked the back of the car up and had a look at the pump and the plumbing to make sure that I had not mixed up the pump intake and the return line (I have the older three port pump). Everything was correct. Panic was starting to set in! I pulled off the suction line and it was dry, so it was not a case of a blockage. My biggest concern was that the feed line in the tank had a major suction leak or had come dislodged. I blew low pressure compressed air back into the tank and got a very satisfying bubbling sound – so that was good.
I pulled the pump housing off and tried running the pump with some test solvent to see if it would pump. Nothing was happening. I pulled the pump out of the housing and pulled the pump head off of the motor to see if there was something plugging the ports. Nothing!. I pulled the anti-bleed back check valve on the pump outlet off and with a small screwdriver pushed on the check valve. It seemed to open without much force so I think it was probably OK. When I disassembled the car a number of years ago, I pulled and disassembled the pump to confirm that the motor ran, clean it up and give it a new coat of paint. When I put it back together, I reassembled the pump head with the intake port lining up with the power connection for the pump motor, exactly as it looks in the Volvo service manual. As I was looking at the pump head, I could see that the marks on the motor body left by the rubber O ring on the pump head no longer lined up with the O ring when the pump was assembled this way. In order to get these old O ring marks to line up, I had to rotate the pump head by 90 deg compared to what the service manual showed. I have the original three port pump head; however, the pump motor is from the later K jet system. The original pump motor had failed back in 1976. The shop did not have a Djet pump; but, the mechanic said that he had a K jet pump motor which would work. Since the gas flows around the motor body (cooling?), I am guessing that the discharge port from the pump to the motor body may have got rotated by 90 deg during a design change from the D jet to the K jet (I can’t confirm this since I do not have a D jet pump motor to do a comparison), or perhaps my discharge check valve was jammed. I can’t confirm which. Whatever the problem, the end result is that with the poked check valve and the pump head rotated by 90 deg, a quick test with pumping solvent showed that the pump was now operating. I reassembled everything and resumed my pressurization test. This time success – sort of! The fuel pressure gauge was registering pressure and I was not spraying or dripping fuel from any of the connections. However, the gauge was registering slightly over 36 psi rather than the 32 psi I was expecting from the Datsun pressure regulator.
More drama to follow.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 05-20-2014 at 11:23 AM.
So checking a Datsun 280 Z service manual showed that the static fuel pressure should test out at 36.5 psi. Just about exactly what I was measuring. My assumption about 32 psi was based upon what Phil Berry had written in his post about his B20E Megasquirt conversion. To be fair to Phil, what he wrote was that the fuel pressure at idle was about 32 psi. So, if his engine was running with a manifold pressure of about 70 kPa, he could have a measured fuel pressure of 32 psi with a 36 psi static pressure. 70 kPa seems high for manifold pressure at idle; but, his engine may not be stock. I should have read his post more carefully!
The higher static fuel pressure is not a disaster. All it means is that I had to recalculate the flow rates for the injectors based upon the 36 psi static pressure and recalculate the Required Fuel pulse width. Actually, Tuner Studio has a Req Fuel calculator in it so all I needed to change was the injector flow rates.
I configured the Meqasquirt based pretty much on the settings suggested in the Mega manual configuration and tuning section. The Volvo service manual provides resistance versus temperature curves for the air and coolant temperature sensors. The manual provides a range of resistance values for each temperature for both sensors. I decided to measure the resistance of both sensors over a range of temperatures using a hot water bath. I plotted the range of measurements on a graph. Since the range of my measurements was not very large (roughly 25C – 50C for the CLT), I made the assumption that the resistance would follow the same shape as the curves in the service manual and extrapolated them on this basis. I used the lower limit curve for the CLT and the upper limit curve for the AIT because that was those were the lines that my measurements were closest to. The images below show my measured and extrapolated curves versus the Volvo manual.
I could have picked the mid-point of the curves in the Volvo manual and used those values. For the IAT, the uncertainty in the air temperature would not be such a big deal as absolute temperature is used in the fuel calculations, so a 10 deg C uncertainty at 27 C would only amount to about a 3.3% uncertainty in the Required Fuel calculation. However, I am using Megasquirt to operate my cooling fan. 95C versus 85C would be a significant difference in the set point for fan operation.
Mega Tune allows you to enter in custom resistance versus temperature curves for your sensors. For my IAT I used:
10 C -450 ohm
30 C – 220 ohm
50 C – 125 ohm
For the CLT I used:
10 C – 3350 ohm
30 C – 1675 ohm
50 C – 825 ohm
I used a volumetric efficiency map that was based upon Phil Berry’s map below about 40 kPa and the map that came out of the VE map generator in the Mega Manual above 40 kPa. I won’t bother sharing it as it is too preliminary.
With the Megasquirt configured, I installed it in the car. First thing I did was power it up with the fuel pump isolated and with my lap top connected to the Megasquirt, confirmed that I could ‘see’ all of the sensors and that they operated. I initially was a bit concerned as my IAT was reading about 10 C above my CLT; however, I realized that our night-time temperatures were still dropping into the single digits and that the iron block was lagging way behind the air temperature as it increased during the day. I calibrated the throttle position switch for 0% and 100 % opening in Mega Tune and also set my O2 sensor type (at least I thought I did). With that I stuck the fuel pump fuse back in, confirmed that Megasquirt issued a pump start up when I turned the key to on and then turned the key to start. The starter motor engaged and turned the motor; but, I did not get any firing other than the occasional phhht out the tail pipe. That was a let-down!
I pulled out my timing light and confirmed that I was getting spark during cranking and that the timing during cranking was at 10 deg BTDC. I put a scope across the injector resistors and confirmed that the Megasquirt was switching the injectors. This was backed up by the fact that when I pulled the plugs, they were wet. I had spark and fuel and with a fresh engine the compression was good and the cold lash on the valves was correct, so what was going on. The only remaining variable was the distributor timing. I pulled the valve cover off to confirm that I had # 1 at TDC on compression and then popped the distributor cap. Sure enough, the rotor is pointed at #4. Dumb –ass! You can’t just lift the distributor and rotate the shaft 180 deg to line up properly as the distributor is driven off the end of the oil pump drive shaft and is coupled to the oil pump shaft via a slot in the end of the oil pump shaft. That slot is offset slightly so there is only one way that the distributor can couple to the oil pump shaft. You install the oil pump with the slot at a particular angle (different for B20B and B20E) and the offset towards the top. This is done with the engine at TDC on #1 firing. I knew this and took pains to make sure that it was set up correctly and yet I still bungled it. The only thing that I can think of is that I installed one of those IPD re enforcing rings on the oil pump shaft and I was having trouble engaging the distributor with the oil pump shaft during test fitting on the engine stand. I had the oil pump in and out of the engine a couple of times during the test fit. When I did the last fit I must have failed to ensure that I had the offset aligned properly. The proper fix would involve lifting the engine, dropping the pan and pulling the oil pump and rotating its shaft by 180 degrees. That wasn’t happening! The quick fix involved switching the 1 and 4 and 2 and 3 plug wires on the distributor cap (I think that means that any plans for the Concours d’Elegance are now off!).
With the plug wires switched, I Jump back in the car, turned the key to start and presto, engine fires with about 2 – 3 seconds cranking and miracle, continues to run. The next few seconds are a little panicky as I check to confirm oil pressure and then run to the front to check for coolant, fuel and oil leaks. After about 30 seconds I start to get smoke from the engine bay so I shut down and grab my fire extinguisher. However, no need to panic. During my pre test I had discovered that the Volvo oil pressure switch had failed so I had replaced it. This required removal of the oil filter to get a wrench on the switch and I must have spilled some oil on the top of the header collector. I wipe the remaining oil off and it was good to go. I re-fired the engine and let it warm up. After about 2 – 3 minutes I check my dash temperature gauge versus the engine temperature in Tuner Studio and I notice I have about a 10 – 15 deg C discrepancy with the dash gauge being cooler so I shut down and investigate. Sure enough the cooling system has burped after the refill and I am down about 0.5 l of coolant so I top up. The dash temperature gauge is after market and requires an adapter to fit its sensor in the hole at the back of the block where the stock sensor fits. This causes it to sit higher than stock and it is now the highest point in the cooling system so I loosen the sensor a bit to allow any air that might be trapped there to bleed off. I also discover that most of the coolant hoses are now starting to weep coolant so it’s time to let things cool off and retighten all the hose clamps. Those heater hoses at the back of the block are a real pain when the wiring harness is in place!
With the engine cooling off, I pulled the plugs to confirm that my mixture wasn’t lean. All four plugs came out sootsville, so I am definitely running really rich which is sort of safe. I was able to clean some of the soot off with some brake cleaner; but, I will need a new set of plugs for a final tune after I sort out my initial running issues. The rich mix also explains why the engine fired so easily when the air temperature was still quite cool. During my initial start-up, I had noticed that the AFR reading in Tuner Studio was stuck at 12.1 while running (and was not fluctuating at all). Pre start it had been measuring 17.1. Since my LC1 wideband O2 controller was capable of measuring AFRs from 7.35 to 22.39, I was confused by the measurements. More on this later.
So the engine runs. It is idling super-fast (about 1800 – 2000 rpm) and my mixture is grossly rich. The latter issue leads me down the exploratory path of ‘what is the real flow rate of a Bosch 0 280 150 036 injector).
As a final observation, I have a suggestion for anybody doing an initial start-up like this on a ‘green engine’ with an untested fuel system. Have a second person to stand at the front of the car and watch for stuff while you do the start and monitor the displays. Running back and forth from the front to check for leaks and back to the driver’s seat to monitor the tune doesn’t allow you to keep a close eye on everything during the critical initial start when things can go sideways quite quickly.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 05-23-2014 at 11:27 AM.
Interesting stuff you post here! I'll study it and hopefully it will be usefull for my own megasquirt project, but 1st I have to contineu with some of my other projects like my Citroen DS and Fokker G.1 project.
The DS is a definite luxo cruiser and rare over here. There was one in town when I was a teenager and I have never seen another local one since. I remember two things. You couldn't find the engine because of all the suspension plumbing and other stuff in the engine compartment and I think it was a Pallas model so it had this wild red sort of velour interior (think Las Vegas boudoir style). Is yours an early model or a later model? I think the later models had D jet didn't they.
Originally Posted by rixt
When you say Fokker G1, do you mean Fokker G1 the twin engine aircraft and are we talking the full size thing or something slightly smaller?
I've got a DS 21 Pallas with a D-jetronic with leather upholstery. In almost every aspect a complete different car than a Volvo 142. But for the daily driver I go for the Volvo. Like you said, the engineroom is completely filled with all kind of stuff and many parts a hardly to reach when you conduct maintenance. For the conpulsary bi-annual technical inspection I had to change a headlight, by a Volvo that takes you have an hour. So not with a DS, I had to disassemble the entire fender and all the rods that keeps the headlight in the right angle when the hight of the car changes.
Yes, I talk about the aircraft. I am trying to build the complete fuselage at full scale. It is a long term project, when I get some new drawings or materials I work on the fuselage.
But at the moment I am also busy with a "new"car for my girlfreind, a 144 GL from 1973. Also this car has an injection engine, the car just received a new paintcoat and upholstery. Hopefully the car will be ready next week.
Originally Posted by rixt
From the pictures, the Fokker G1 is not a small aircraft. I think you have your spare time occupied for the next 10 or 20 years!
I noted in my last post that I had a high idle problem. I have turned the idle air bypass adjustment screw all the way in and it continues to idle at 1800 – 2000 RPM. The throttle plate is adjusted as per the manual - 1/8 to ¼ turn on the throttle stop screw. I pulled the air inlet hose off the intake manifold and put a heavy plastic bag completely over the inlet. This managed to bring the idle down significantly; but, did not immediately kill the engine. From this, I drew the conclusion that I have a small to moderate air leak somewhere in the intake manifold.
I first checked the obvious candidates such as the brake booster and the vacuum lines to the distributor, MAP sensor and fuel pressure regulator. All of these tested OK. I also confirmed that the thermally controlled auxiliary air valve was closing completely. To draw out the leaks, I hooked up my shop vacuum in reverse and with the aid of an adaptor, fitted the hose into the intake manifold.
Not shown in the photo are clamps that I put on the hoses to the MAP sensor, fuel pressure regulator, brake booster and distributor. I did not want to damage any diaphragms. I pulled the crankcase vent nipple and closed it off with a pipe plug. To hold the throttle plate open, I used a clamp on the throttle cable at the fire wall.
With the shop vacuum on, I sprayed a soapy solution around the various connections and joints on the manifold. I discovered 4 air leaks. The O ring on the base of the injector holder was leaking. I replaced the O ring on the base and the rubber ring around the injector pintle assembly for good measure. The barbed fitting for the vacuum line to the distributor was leaking. That was an easy fix as I had failed to screw the fitting in tightly when I assembled it. I also discovered that the rubber hose on the barbed fitting was leaking slightly so I got the smallest hose clamp I could find to hold the hose in place. The big problem is that there are air leaks are on both sides of the throttle shaft. The leaks are not huge; however, I am unsure about how to repair them. I haven’t tried to pull the shaft out yet; however, I have checked the parts manual and it does not show any repair parts. I was expecting that there would be replacement O rings or bushings in the manifold.
At this point I am a little unsure as to how I want to proceed. I have not started the engine up since fixing the two air leaks, so I don’t know whether I have reduced the air flow low enough to get the idle speed close to something reasonable. Aside from obvious driveability issues, if I can’t reduce the idle speed I can’t do the mixture checks. If the fixes get the idle speed down to something reasonable, I can complete the tuning and then come back and address the issue of the air leaks around the throttle shaft at a later date. Fixing those air leaks would then just require a minor adjustment to the idle air bypass screw to get the required air flow for idle.
Does anybody know whether the throttle shaft on the D jet has any serviceable parts? If so, do you know the part numbers?
Last edited by 142 Guy; 05-27-2014 at 11:36 PM.
I decided to suck it up and try and deal with the leaking throttle shaft. The throttle plate and shaft came apart fairly easily. On the spring / cable actuator side of the shaft, there was a felt packing on the shaft similar to the felt packing used on the front and rear crankshaft seals. See the photo below.
The felt packing was fairly dry and hard. There was no similar packing on the throttle switch side. However, underneath the throttle switch, there is a recess in the aluminum boss that supports the throttle plate shaft that is the same diameter and appears to be the same depth as the recess which had the felt packing on the cable actuator side. I am thinking that the throttle switch side should have a similar felt packing. Who knows what happened to it.
I am going to do another search through the parts manual to see if I can find the packing. It definitely is replaceable and is a wear item. If I can’t find a replacement part, I have the felt packing for the front seal which came with my gasket set (I have a replacement rubber seal instead of the felt seals on the crankshaft) and I will have to attempt to fabricate a new packing from the felt.
If you do this, make sure you put something in the air by-pass port to prevent one of the throttle plate screws from dropping down into the port when you back out the screw. I used a small lump of Duct Seal jammed into the port to block it. If a screw drops in the port, it might be a world of hurt trying to get it out!
While looking at the felt packing, I decided that it looked to be just about the same size as the rubber seal on the pintle end of the fuel injectors. I went out and grabbed my box of leftover / extra parts and dug out some spare injector seals. Sure enough, it was a firm fit on the throttle shaft and about 0.5 - 1.0 mm in overall diameter larger. A little judicious pruning with a single edged razor yielded a firm fit for the seal in the recess on the throttle cable side.
My comments that there should be a similar seal on the throttle switch side were out to lunch. You can fit a seal in there without any problem; however, the seal offsets the throttle shaft towards the throttle switch with the result that the throttle plate will no longer fit in the throttle shaft. So there never could have been a felt seal on that side of the shaft. I packed that end of the shaft with a heavy, high temp moly sulfide grease which I hope will provide a reasonable seal around the shaft.
While scrounging through my leftover gaskets looking for the injector seal, I discovered a felt packing in the remains of the gasket set of approximately the right size. I never new what it was for so I never used it. The packing inner hole is a loose fit on the throttle shaft and certainly would not provide an air tight seal. Its outer diameter is larger than the diameter of the hole that it has to fit in the boss that supports the throttle shaft, so perhaps its is supposed to squeeze down to form the seal. The fuel injector seal seems to be such a firm fit that I decided to use it instead of this felt packing. It is definitely a tighter fit on the shaft. We will see how it works on in the longer term.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 06-16-2014 at 11:41 PM.
I should subtitle this post ‘so what exactly is the flow rate on a Bosch 0 280 150 036 injector’.
I mentioned that I had started with some of the constants that Phil Berry had posted on his Mega Squirt conversion on his 1800. Phil’s post indicated that he was using a Required Fuel pulse duration of 8.2 mS. Phil had also referred to the Bosch injectors as 36 lb/hr injectors. In fact, there are a lot of web sites, including some vendor websites, which refer to the 280 150 036 injector as a 36 lb injector. Injector flow rates are all (or the vast majority) rated at a test pressure of 3 Bar or 43.5 psi. When you adjust for the actual operating pressure of 36 psi with the Datsun FPR, the flow rate would be about 32.7 lb/hr. With that flow rate, my Required Fuel pulse duration was coming out at around 9.9 mS, which is significantly higher than what Steve Berry was using. This would jive with my really running rich.
Steve Berry may have a non stock engine size, targeting a different air / fuel ratio or may be adjusting for a different VE for a modified engine, all of which tend to make the RF pulse longer, not shorter than mine which is based on a stock .030” over engine. However, it perhaps would provide some illumination as to why my engine is running so rich. After some trolling on the internet for information on the 0 280 150 036 injector, I lucked upon a link to a specification sheet published by Bosch for their injectors. At the very top of the spec sheet is the 0 280 150 036 injector.
Bosch lists the flow rate as 364.3 gm / min at 43.5 psi which works out to 48.19 lb/hr. About 33% higher than what most of the internet sources are reporting. Adjusting the flow rate for my 36 psi operating pressure gives a flow rate of 43.83 lb/hr and results in a Required Fuel pulse width of 7.4 mS. Using Steve Berry’s RF of 8.2 mS as a reference, this seems a little more reasonable. My RF for an unmodified engine should be shorter. While doing my internet troll, I came across a post on another Volvo forum (Turbo bricks or maybe BrickBoard). This post was interesting as the individual had sent his 0 280 150 036 injectors out for cleaning and testing and the flow rate came back at 55 lb/hr @ 43.5 psi.
With a 55 lb injector corrected to the operating pressure of 36 psi, the flow rate would be 50.17 lb/hr and the Required Fuel pulse width drops to around 6.4 mS. Between the Bosch published data and the test result, I have some latitude for shortening with my RF pulse width which would go a long ways to addressing my really low air fuel ratios. Given the discrepancy between the Bosch published data and the (admittedly only one) test result, I may at some point send my injectors out to have the flow rate confirmed.
In my post #52, I noted that I had done some ‘home’ flow tests on the injectors to confirm that they all delivered equivalent amounts. In that post, I noted that my home test did not jive with the assumed 36 lb/hr flow rate for the injectors; however, I attributed the discrepancy to the inaccuracy in my pressure gauge and timing circuit (the timing circuit gave consistent results; however, the actual time was in doubt as I used 10% tolerance components to throw the circuit together). My home test gave results which would be equivalent to about 44 lb/hr at 3 Bar. The combined uncertainty with 10% R & C components in the timing circuit could be as much as 19%, so my test could have been flowing rates that matched the Bosch spec sheet or the test results posted on the other forum.
One thing that is apparent is that the 0 280 150 036 injector is pushing the size limits for a naturally aspirated stock B20E running Megasquirt. A rough guide would be that the flow rate at the operating fuel pressure should be around 20 lb/hr. I potentially have about 44 lb/hr @ 36 psi (based upon the Bosch spec). The high flow rates can make operation at idle iffy. The MegaManual guideline is that the fuel pulse width should be a minimum of about 1.6 mS at idle. If my Required Fuel is as low as 6.4 mS, I could be bumping right up or below this minimum pulse width, which would make operation at idle iffy. I know that other people claim to have the B20E operating with the Bosch injectors and the Datsun FPR. However, I don’t know how well they are idling (if they are race engines, they may not be too concerned). Aeromotive offers a fuel pressure regulator (#13301) which they claim can be set from 20 – 60 psi. It has 3/8” Npt fittings rather than barb fittings, so it will require Npt to barb adapters; but, that is no big deal. The Aeromotive regulator should allow me to drop the pressure down to Bosch’s recommended operating pressure of 28 psi which would give me a flow rate of 38.6 lb/hr and get my RF pulse width up to 8.3 mS. This would give me more margin when setting up my idle. It might also reduce the risk of the injectors developing leaks from operating at a pressure higher than what Bosch recommends.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 05-29-2014 at 11:53 AM.
The high idle speed mystery continues!
After doing my fixes on the throttle shaft, I fired up the engine and now it idles even faster. The good news is that my mixtures are looking a little more reasonable (around 13.5:1 – my initial target mixtures are set on the rich side to avoid wrecking things) and the color of the spark plugs reflects this, and I can see that EGO feedback loop is working. During testing I had a bit of a scare as the high temperature warning light came on the dash temperature gauge. I think I have it set at 90 C. When this happened I realized that the engine fan was not running. I shut down and then tested the fan external wiring and the Megasquirt control settings. A static test of the fan (I dropped the AND requirement for engine speed above 450 RPM so that the fan just operated on block temperature) showed that Megasquirt was starting the fan up on the temperature setting so I am not sure what happened. I will have to keep an eye on that during the next test.
The engine was idling above 2500 RPM. The second good thing is that this time, when I used my finger to block the idle air inlet port in the intake manifold, the engine died, so I have eliminated the air leaks in the intake manifold. However, this leads to further mysteries. I clamped off the hose to the auxiliary air flow regulator and screwed in the idle adjustment screw so that it was bottoming. I started up the engine and it continues to idle really high. I use my finger to block the idle air inlet port and it dies, so there are definitely no manifold leaks. I am now really confused. The aux air regulator is totally blocked off and the idle air screw is bottomed out and as a result there should be no air entering the engine through the idle circuit. More testing is required!
I started up my air compressor, disconnected the hose connected to the inlet side of the aux air regulator (#71 in the picture below) and connect the air supply from the compressor up to this hose so that it is blowing back through hose #71 into the intake manifold. I can feel air blowing out the idle air inlet port on the intake manifold as it should be. I plug the idle air inlet port with my finger and with the idle air screw backed out, I can hear the air blowing out the idle air outlet port on the other side of the throttle plate, again as it should. I now start screwing in the idle adjustment screw (#66 in the picture). The screw bottoms out and with my finger blocking the inlet port, I can still hear air blowing out the idle air outlet port. This is the mystery. I had been operating on the assumption that with the idle air screw all the way in, I would not have any air flow through the idle circuit. Such is not the case. I have plenty of air flow. Enough to allow the engine to run at over 2500 RPM.
The idle air adjustment screw has a tapered end. I had assumed that this tapered end would match up with a tapered port and that when the screw was totally in to the tapered port, there would be no air flow. I stuck a piece of stiff wire in to the hole that received the idle screw. Probing the hole with the wire indicates that the hole does not appear to have any perceptible taper to it. It appears to be pretty much a plug end. Unfortunately, space does not permit me to visually inspect the hole and the diameter of the hole is so small that I can’t fit any of the inspection cameras that I have access to in to the hole. The absence of taper leads me to wonder whether there is supposed to be some sort of insert in the base of the hole that would match up with the taper on the screw and that somehow, this insert has gone AWOL. However, the parts manual does not show any such insert.
As a final check, I slathered a very thick coat of machinist’s blue layout dye on to the tapered end of the idle air screw. I ran the screw into bottom of the hole for the screw and then pulled the screw out. The machinist’s dye showed almost no marks indicating little contact of the taper with anything hard. There was a little of the dye rubbed off on one side of the screw at the very base (thickest part) of the taper. I am at a total miss as to how this idle air circuit is supposed to be set up. Any observations a to what might be going on?
I think I have fixed my high idle speed problem. The short answer is that it appears to be the throttle cable. Specifically, there were a couple of broken strands of wire midway through the cable jacket which were creating enough drag to prevent the throttle plate from completely closing against its stop. The drag held the throttle plate open so ever slightly permitting enough air to flow past the throttle plate and cause the high idle.
The longer answer is that when I assembled the throttle and set the throttle stop, I did it without the cable connected. When I checked for complete closure of the throttle plate, it looked good. I would then connect the throttle cable, adjust the slack out and then proceed to calibrate the throttle position switch in Tuner Studio which requires that you operate the gas pedal from the closed to fully open position and save the settings that give you 0% and 100 % open. As soon as I did this, the throttle would no longer return to the fully closed position resulting in my high idle. My problem was that I thought I was still getting complete closure against the stop screw. Its only when I happened to push my finger against the throttle plate and felt it move ever so slightly that I realized that it was not closing completely. It took about 30 minutes of fiddling to trace it to the broken strands in the cable.
I unravelled the broken strands and clipped them at either end which has eliminated the drag caused by the cable and allows the throttle plate to close completely against the stop screw. Clearly I will be ordering a new throttle cable. I can now set the idle to around 900 RPM using the idle air screw. My idle air screw still does not completely block idle air when it is fully screwed in; however, that is not creating a problem a present.
The problem with the cooling fan shutting itself off leading to overheating re emerged. I caught it when the temperature hit about 95 C and shut it down so there should be no damage. I am thinking that the hysteresis setting on the output port for the fan may be set up incorrectly. I am going to pull the Megasquirt out of the car and connect it up to the JimStim simulator to confirm that the fan control is operating as I expect. I need to do this so I can concentrate on the tuning aspects rather than worry about whether the engine is going to overheat while I drive it around doing data logs.
I have also decided to replace the Datsun fuel pressure regulator with the Aeromotive fuel pressure regulator so that I can drop the fuel pressure down to 28 psi which is the recommended pressure for the Bosch injectors. This will allow me to increase the duration of my required fuel pulse (with the lower flow rate) which should help my idle performance. The new regulator should be here towards the end of next week so I may hold off on doing further tuning until then.
I also discovered that a number of my brake fittings are weeping brake fluid. I don’t know whether this has something to do with the DOT 5 fluid we used or whether something else is up. So the next week of down time waiting for the new regulator will be put to good use chasing brake gremlins.
I have owned several volvos. Re your rear view mirror; grease good but turn as applying great pressure! Some volvos came w/ a drivers side kick frame w/ openable
vent, this shaped to route cowl water arround it. So in regard to speakers in this area; requires heavy plastic sheeting arround back of speaker and wires out front.
(usually enough notches arround speaker mounting edge) As for door opening weld flange garnage being short; take off give gental pull than try again. (worked for me)
Just thought if ever I had chance to use a rotiseary(sp) that before any primer/paint I would continuosly weld around rear wheel lip with small filler rod grind smooth then paint. This one job prvents fist place to showw rust!!!
I'm a bit late , hope to see more of your car, i had a 1971 142e too! plus '68 122s, '70 142s, '73 144e, '79 262c high performace(one of 50 built, 160mph hence my user
Damn! I wish I had thought of that! The seam between the rocker and panel below the rear vent window was filled with a weld bead; but, you are right about the lip where the outer panel and inner wheel well panel are joined around the wheel arch.
Originally Posted by fast262c
I haven't had time to check. How does water that drains from the cowl exit from the area where the vents are located?
I pulled the Megasquirt controller out of the car and connected it up to the simulator to check the operation of the fan. Checks out. Fan starts up at 82 C and drops out at 72 C whenever the engine speed is above 450 RPM. The engine speed had a dead band of 50 RPM which I changed to 250 RPM (RPM now has to drop to 200 RPM to stop the fan). The only purpose of the AND condition with engine speed is to stop the fan from running during cranking (engine speed less than 450 RPM) so I don't really think that was the cause of the problem. I cycled the fan off and on several times with the simulator and could not get the fan control to fail, so my problem must be elsewhere. I think I will just ground the MS input on the fan relay so that it is on all the time so I have one less thing to think about during the tuning phase.
Speaking of tuning, I have to be able to drive the car to tune which I can't do if the car can't stop. I have a number of the flare fittings on the hard lines that all seem to be weeping brake fluid past the flares. Is there some special trick to getting the hard line flares to seat properly so they don't leak? Is there something about the DOT 5 fluid that makes it more prone to weeping? I used DOT 5 on a couple of the motorcycles that I used to own and never had this problem (although neither motorcycle had hard lines).
The new Aeromotive fuel pressure regulator arrived last week and I installed it in the same location as the factory FPR. A fairly simple operation as it just required bending the supplied bracket a bit to match up with the slope of the Volvo firewall and drilling a new hole in the bracket to line up with one of the existing holes in the firewall where the old regulator was mounted. I shortened the mounting tab with a hacksaw and smoothed off the edges with a file. The FPR has 3/8” NPT ports, so I also ordered a couple of 3/8” NPT to 5/16” barbed adaptors. The discharge port from the FPR is on the bottom; however, you have the choice of 4 ports around the periphery of the body for the inlet. Naturally, you need three 3/8” NPT plugs for the unused ports.
The FPR comes with two springs for pressure setting. One for pressures up to 20 psi and the second for pressures from 20 psi to 60 something psi. The lower pressure spring is installed so I pulled off the top and installed the higher pressure spring. As supplied from the factory the port for the vacuum reference signal comes out on the right side of the regulator. Since I had the top off, I flipped the top so that the port would face to the opposite side simplifying the routing of the vacuum reference line. I hooked up my fuel pressure tester and jumpered the fuel pump relay to pressurise the system. I adjusted the setting screw to give me a static fuel rail pressure of 28 psi. I found that the pressure oscillated a bit so I set it so that the pressure oscillated between 28 and 30 psi.
With a fuel pressure of 28 psi, I calculated the flow rate on the Bosch injectors to be 38.7 lb/hr based upon the Bosch technical spec of 364.3 gm/min (48.19 lb/hr) @ 3 Bar. I am sticking with the Bosch published info for now rather than that one test result which talks about 55 lb/hr. That flow rate gives me a calculated value of Required Fuel of 8.3 mSec. It is interesting that is almost identical to the 8.2 mSec required fuel value that Steve Berry posted in his conversion when using the Datsun FPR.
I fired up the car and did an initial fuel pressure check. With the engine on fast idle the manifold pressure was around 50 – 60 kPa and the fuel pressure was about 22 psi which is just about right on to maintain a constant pressure of 28 psi across the injectors. Initially the fuel pressure was still bouncing around about 2 psi; however, I noticed that after about an hour and a half of operation (stop engine, adjust Ve values restart), the pressure fluctuations seemed to stop and it seems to be holding pretty steady. Maybe FPRs require some break-in?
I checked my AFRs and with the EGO correction shut off, I was still running in the 12 range. Before starting to adjust the Ve table, I confirmed that my ignition timing was reasonable. Static advance was at 10 deg and total advance is around 32 deg. It was hard to get a good measure as I did not have a degree wheel on the crank so I was estimating where 32 deg was based on the relative position of the white ‘blob’ that was the 30 deg mark. Anyway, its close.
The engine was currently idling around 1500 RPM. If I try to screw in the idle adjustment to drop the engine speed the AFRs started to drop and it started running rough. I turned the EGO correction on and watched how much EGO correction was required to bring the AFR into my target range of around 15:1 with a kPa around 50 and RPM around 1500 RPM. My objective is to tune the Ve values to minimize the amount of EGO correction required to match the AFR targets set in the AFR table. In order to minimize the EGO correction, I had to drop the Ve values in my table significantly from what the Megasquirt table generator had produced. I now have Ve values in the order of 29% in the bins around the 1500 RPM / 50 kPa table entries. These changes reduced the EGO correction to less than 10% at that operating condition and have allowed me to bring down my idle speed quite a bit. It is now idling smoothly around 1100 RPM which is still quite high. With a little more work on the Ve bins at the lower RPM and manifold pressure settings I should be able to get a 900 rpm idle speed.
Before I can tune the other Ve bins, I have to be able to drive the car which means I have to address my leaking brake lines issue. I have ordered some copper flare savers and they should be here this week. If the weather holds I plan to address the brake problem this week. We have had a combination of a lot of rain and high winds for the last couple of weeks. The NSX now occupies the garage so the 142 is outside under a car cover. Working outside in the rain, wind, or rain plus wind is a non starter!
I think I have solved my overheating problem. Standing in front of the car with the fan running, I noticed that I had air blowing out around the headlight nacelles. Sure enough, I have my front mounted fan wired up so that it is sucking warm air from the engine compartment rather than blowing cool outside air through the rad into the engine compartment. Not exactly the best for good heat transfer. A quick flip of the pins on the Deutche connector fixed that and seems to have dealt with the hot running problem.
It appears that I have a problem with the charging system. The car has a rebuilt Bosch alternator and the original regulator. Its generating enough voltage to stop the charge light from coming on once the engine is running; however, the system voltage is only about 12.5 volts which is not enough to keep the battery charged with my repeated start stops as I adjust the Ve values and burn them into the Megasquirt. I am hoping that the rebuilt alternator is not faulty and that the problem is with the 44 year old regulator. The process of adjusting the regulator looks a little iffy – involves bending stuff to adjust the voltages. Has anybody had success adjusting the Bosch regulator or am I better off purchasing one of the adjustable solid state replacement regulators?
Last edited by 142 Guy; 06-16-2014 at 11:58 PM.
I decided to try and chase down my low voltage problem. I pulled the voltage regulator out, peeled off the sealing tape (it’s the Bosch regulator with the yellow band around the base) and pulled the cover off. The insides looked pretty much brand new. No pitting on the contacts and no corrosion of any kind. Not to promising in terms of being the source of my problem. I bent the little arm that sets the tension on the moving contact (should raise the voltage), reinstalled the regulator and started the car up. Absolutely no effect on the voltage. I watched the regulator while the car was running and I could see the moving contact operating, so it’s clear that the regulator was not at fault.
So to the next option. Check out my ‘new’ rebuilt alternator. I pulled it out and the first thing I measured was the resistance between the external field winding contact and the frame of the alternator. It measured out at about 130 ohms. This wasn’t good. The field winding is supposed to have a resistance of around 4 ohms. I pulled the brush holder out and measured the field winding resistance across the slip rings. Approximately 4 ohms! Hmmm! The brushes were new and moved easily in the brush holder. I checked the continuity of the brushes relative to the external contact and all was good. What I did notice was that the mounting holes for the brush holder were significantly larger than the mounting studs which made for a fair amount of slop when they were installed. I reinstalled the brush holder and used a screw driver head to wedge the brush holder down so that the springs in the brush holder were applying more pressure on the brushes as they road on the slip rings. After reassembly, I measured the resistance between the frame of the alternator and the field winding contact and it came out around 8 – 12 ohms, which is reasonable allowing for the static contact resistance of the brushes on the slip rings. It seems that the mounting holes in the brush holder provided enough slop that the brush springs were not applying sufficient pressure on the brushes to get good contact with the slip rings.
I reinstalled the alternator and started up the car. Bingo, problem solved – sort of! After my little bending exercise on the regulator, I now had way to high a voltage. About 16 volts. I popped the regulator top off again and bent the little pre tensioning arm back and now have a running voltage around 14.2 volts. I was targeting 14.4 volts; but, setting the voltage by bending a piece of steel isn’t the easiest thing to do. It seemed that I could have 14.2 volts or 15 volts and 14.2 seemed the lesser of the evils. I was also concerned that if I did too many back and forth bends, I was going to break the arm right off.
While I was doing this testing, I started getting some new mechanical noise from the front of the engine. Perverse as it may seem, I am really hoping that it is bearing noise from the alternator. That would be annoying; but, relatively easy to fix. It doesn’t sound like typical water pump noise which is leaving a timing gear / valve train problem as the remaining alternative. It sounds like ball bearing noise, particularly the way it started up ( on and off before becoming continuous). I may have to source a stethoscope to confirm the noise source.
I checked with the guy that I ordered the copper flare washers from for my brake system and he doesn’t expect to have them in until the end of the week. We also have a forecast for a couple of days of steady rain, so it looks like between no brakes and lousy weather, further tuning is on hold for a while.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 06-17-2014 at 10:26 PM.
The rain continues and my flare washers have not arrived, so no progress to report.
I was originally planning on not doing this; however, I have recently been thinking about installing remotely operated power door locks. The reason is that I notice that the lock cylinders on the doors, particularly the driver's side, are not operating as smoothly as they might. After 40 + years, I expect some wear. I have tried the usual trick of graphite, which helped a bit; however, I don't think that is a long term solution. I have a brand new combined remote starter / security system / door lock control unit from another project that did not go forward. Installation would be relatively easy if I only implement the remote door opener and the security system portion of the control unit. However, I have two questions. If anybody has done this, what power lock motors did you use and what did you use to get a reliable and sanitary looking wiring connection between the door and the car body? The reliability of the wiring connection between the door and the body has perhaps been my biggest hang-up. On my '87 745 turbo, I was continually repairing the factory wiring harness to the driver's side door because of cracking boots and frayed wiring.
Do you know what the CLT sensor part numbers you are using? I have a VDO 3.84 sensor with 120C on one flat and 3.84 on another.... trying to get my ms to read this sensor and cant seem to find anything.
To confirm, you are talking about the CLT sensor at the front of the head used by the Djet, not the sensor at the back of the head used by the dash gauge?
Originally Posted by cwdodson88
With the sensor mounted in the head, I can't read very much. However, I can clearly make out the logo for Bosch (two pole armature surrounded by a circle) and the following numbers 0 9801 the number is longer than that; but, I couldn't read the rest of the numbers. It is also possible that the number starts with 0 2801. Even after polishing the sensor with a little metal cleaner, it was difficult to confirm whether it was a 9 or a 2, although I am more inclined to it being a 9.
Time for an update.
First to the one step forward and no steps back category.
I previously noted that I needed a new throttle cable. I acquired a new from CVI and installed it. I make note of this because the new cable has a Teflon or similar slippery plastic liner within the cable jacket which greatly reduces friction. The new cable has a black jacket compared to the turquoise jacket on my original cable. The cable came in a bag with Volvo markings on it, so I assume that it is OEM, not aftermarket. If you are still using an older style throttle cable, I highly recommend the new style cable just for the improvement in operation.
Many posts ago, I had noted that I wanted to change the treatment of my exhaust pipe. I found a heavy chrome slash cut tip I liked at a local exhaust shop. The tip required an adapter to be fabricated as the tip was fabricated for pipe with a 2" internal diameter. The Simons exhaust uses pipe with a 2” external diameter. The result was that the tip was a very lose fit on the exhaust pipe. The exhaust shop fabricated a short adapter to connect the tip to the Simons exhaust pipe. The tip is designed to be tack welded in place; however, the fit of the tip / adapter / exhaust pipe was pretty tight (required a little help from a plastic mallet) so I elected to stick it on using some liquid urethane glue. Once the glue set, it was not going any place.
I had to do some adjustments to the exhaust system to move it forward on the car. The rear muffler was just too close to the fuel lines and fittings on the front of the gas tank to make me happy. After the adjustments, the edge of the tip sits about 1" inside the outside edge of the bumper.
Now to the stuff that qualifies as 5 steps backward and 5 steps forward! I had noted that my brake lines had a lot of leaks and started working on them to resolve the problems. I ordered a bunch of 3/16" copper flare washers to repair the flare fittings that were leaking. The washers fit between the fitting and the flare on the hard line and deform slightly to fill in any voids between the fitting and the flare on the hard line.
I started off the process by planning to disconnect the hard lines where they connect to the flex lines on the front wheels. This is when I discovered that the brake lines seemed to be assembled incorrectly. Specifically, the sway bar was rubbing on the flex lines and it looked like the steering linkage was also going to hit the hard lines under full compression and lock.
With a little help from Hiperfauto, I determined that the brackets for my hard line to flex line junction was incorrectly installed. As I started pulling the mounting brackets off, I also discovered that the flare fitting on the upper hard line was matching up with a fitting on the flex line that did not have a flare. What the ..... ? Had my flex lines been fabricated with the wrong end fittings? A discussion with the line fabricator and review of the parts manual indicated that the flex lines had been installed with the top and bottom lines to the calipers switched. In order to make this work, the guy who installed the brakes had turned the flex lines around so that the caliper end of the flex lines was now in the bracket. In this case, two negatives still results in a negative! I remounted the bracket in its proper location using one of the holes for the bumper mount and installed the flex lines correctly adding the copper crush washers which were missing where the flex line enters the caliper body (I guess he didn`t believe in crush washers). The flex line fittings appear to be undamaged; however, the two upper hard lines had there flares damaged by being forced into a fitting that did not have a matching flare. I had the guy who did up my flex lines fabricate some new upper hard lines. Having a fitting with a matching flare really helps when trying to get a seal! Naturally enough, since the guy who did the initial install did not seem to believe in crush washers, there were no crush washers where the rear flex lines connect into the rear proportioning valves. Getting the front flex lines sorted out (and new hard lines to replace the damaged ones) and adding in the required crush washers solved most of my leaks. I only had one fitting on the distribution block on the front fender and one on the short hard lines that connects to the caliper that continued to leak and required the use of the flare washers.
My front brake lines after putting everything back together.
Some observations from my experience reassembling brake lines. If your flares are a little tired (not cracked), the flare washers do work well to give you a seal. When reassembling the brake fittings, I applied a little anti seize compound to the threads and to the back of the flare where the flare nut presses against it. The anti seize on the threads helps with getting the flare nuts on smoothly and reduces the risk of cross threading. The anti seize where the flare nut bears on the back of the flare prevents galling on this surface and allows more pressure to be applied to the flare for a better seal. Spend the money to get really good flare wrenches! The jaws on the cheap ones tend to spread apart on really tight nuts resulting in rounding. If you have to get any new hard lines fabricated that require multiple bends or short radius bends, get them made up from a nickel copper alloy rather than the more traditional galvanized steel. It is a little more money; however, the nickel copper alloy is much easier to bend in complex shapes. A final piece of advice from another individual I was discussing my woes with. Avoid stainless steel hard lines. Hard to bend nicely and it can be a real pain to get the flares to seal because it is harder to make the flare conform to the shape of the fitting if there is any discrepancy between the two.
While I had the car up on jack stands working on the brakes, I took the opportunity to do some extra seam sealing with Auto Body Master urethane sealant and adhesive. In particular, I sealed the seam between the inner and outer fender where they are joined around the rear wheel arch. I also filled in around the edges for the reenforcing plates for the seat belt anchors that are in the rear wheel arches and underneath the car and around the edge of the triangular plate that forms the top mount for the rear shock. These are all notorious places dirt can accumulate and retain moisture leading to rust. The sealant could be tooled for up to about 5 minutes after being applied. After that, forget it! It requires humidity to cure and with the recent flooding we have had in our area, the humidity was high enough that it set up and could be top coated in about an hour. Once set up, it is really tough stuff. I know because I got some on my elbow and it set up before I discovered it. I am still working to get the last traces off several days later.
I have some final items to do on the car (install a mirror) and I am going to let the brakes sit for a day or two to see if any wet spots emerge. Then it is on to complete the tuning which is going to require some driving around.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 07-20-2014 at 11:15 PM.
After sitting unused for almost exactly a month, the engine fired up instantly and settled down to a nice idle. Once it warmed up, the idle dropped too low and it died which was easily fixed by adjusting the by pass air adjustment. After doing the throttle cable replacement, I had to recalibrate the throttle position switch which is a simple if slightly tedious exercise using Tuner Studio.
It now moves under its own power, although not that smoothly. The accel enrichment in Megasquirt definitely needs some work! My initial travels were quite limited, limited to exploring the limits of first and reverse gear. While the hydraulic portion of the braking system now appears to be operational, I have a problem with the brake booster (I think) which I will discuss in a separate post.
A bigger impediment to doing extended on the road testing and tuning is that my alternator appears to have returned to non-operational status. It is definitely no longer charging so I will be yanking it out tomorrow to have a look. Its a rebuilt original Bosch unit. If things don't go well with my inspection of the unit, does anybody have any suggestions for a more modern unit with integrated voltage regulator that will bolt in using the same mounts?
I took the car for a little spin around the block a couple of times. In my brief travels, I probably got it all the way up to 50 km/hr! The brake booster is definitely non-operational. Stopping requires a huge amount of pressure on the pedal. I have a replacement on order from VP Autoparts which I hope will fix the problem. The up-side is that all the leaks in the hydraulic system appear to be fixed.
Also discovered that the steering wheel is not aligned properly. Going down the road in a straight line the steering wheel spokes are out by about 75 degrees. Non critical; but, looks bad. Add it to the to-do list!
The shorter sport springs that I got from Scandcar are definitely stiff. Combined with the valving in the Bilsteins, the larger IPD sway bars and the urethane bushings that I had installed, we are definitely into a really, really, really firm ride. It makes my NSX feel like a luxo cruiser! In my brief trips around the block, I discovered that something is loose in the right rear end. There was a fair amount of banging going on over some rough sections of pavement. I had a quick look and checked for exhaust system hits and loose bolts, particularly shock mounts; but, nothing obvious. Tomorrow I will get the car up on axle stands and get my son to push down on the back end to see if I can determine what is making the noise.
Between marginal brakes and the noise in the back end, I didn't really get into any more tuning of the FI. However, from my brief excursion, the accel enrichment definitely needs a lot of work. I want to try the logging function in Tuner Studio and do some driving around; however, that's going to have to wait for the brake booster and fixing whatever is loose in the back end.
As I previously noted, my alternator stopped working again. I checked the field winding resistance on the alternator and once again it was really high. I removed the alternator and had a look at the brush holder. It looked like the brush holder had slipped up in its rather oversize mounting holes and was not applying the proper pressure on the brushes. I got some serrated washers and mounted them between the brush holder and the cover for the brushes. I screwed the screws for the brush holder using a screwdriver blade to push the brush holder down. So far, the serrated washers have prevented the brush holder from slipping upward and reducing the pressure on the brushes. I am getting a relatively steady 14.2 volts on the system. We will see how long this lasts.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 07-28-2014 at 10:29 PM.
I think I have the noise in the right rear end fixed. After a little yanking and pushing exploratory mission with the car mounted so that the shock was fully extended, I discovered that the top shock mount was sliding right to left on its mounting bolt. With the axle on jack stands this did not show up as under less than full extension, the gas pressure in the Bilsteins exerts enough force on the upper mount to prevent it from sliding back and forth on the mount easily. The steel insert in the top shock mount bushing on the Bilsteins is about 3/16" narrower than the space between the mounting plates for the top of the shock. As a result, the shock mount can slide left to right on the mounting bolt and bang into the mounting plates.
I was able to jam a rather thick 1/2" hardened washer between the steel bushing insert and the body which has stopped the top mount from sliding back and forth. Static testing by bouncing the right rear quarter panel with the car on the ground indicates that the noise is no longer present. The final test will be an actual test drive. That will have to wait until the new brake booster is installed. Test driving with no brake assist is too much of a hassle when you also have to concentrate on engine operation because the tune is still pretty iffy.
It is interesting that there has been no similar noise from the left shock. The right side top shock mount is original. The left side shock mounting plate was replaced during the body work because of rust perforations. Perhaps the after market reinforcement plate is thicker eliminating the movement. Right now there is no noise coming from the left side. I am sure that I will have additional exploratory missions under the car in the future and I will have to add checking the left side shock mount on to the list.
I hope this eliminates the problem.
I installed the brake booster from VP Auto on the weekend and bled the brakes again (for about the fourth or fifth time!). The new booster has eliminated the problem with the slow return of the brake pedal. However, taking the car for a short spin, the brakes seem to be underwhelming. The pedal seems firm enough, its more like the pads are glazed (the pads are brand new so they shouldn't be) or the discs or pads have something which has contaminated the surface.
The noise in the right rear end seems to be fixed and the alternator continues to work. With the hotter weather, I have noticed that I am getting a skew in the temperature measurements between the old Djet sensor at the front of the head used by the MegaSquirt and the sensor at the back of the head used by the dash gauge. The fuel injection sensor climbs to around 85C and then sits there. The dash temp gauge seems to be climbing above 90 C. My recollection is that there is a pipe in the head for coolant. Is it possible for that pipe to come out of place and screw things up?
I have made some progress.
After replacing the brake booster, I previously noted some underwhelming braking performance. I finally bit the bullet and bled the brakes again. Sure enough, some air bubbles popped out of the system on one of the rears and both upper bleeders on the front. I guess I just didn’t push enough fluid through on the last bleed to get the air pockets to the bleed valves. I don’t want to think about how many $$$ worth of Dot 5 I have run through the system! All my leak repairs appear to be remaining tight – thank-you flare washers!
Driving around, although the pedal was firm with significantly less travel than it had before, the brakes still seemed a bit underwhelming. However, after about 20 km of a lot of stop and go, the pedal feel and response improved so it may have just been a matter of the pad surfaces losing some contamination.
I spent a couple hours in the car driving around with my son. He had the laptop connected to the Megasquirt and could watch the exhaust gas correction signal from the O2 sensor as we drove at various engine speeds and throttle positions. To do this you have to get a relatively clear section of road so that you can hold the engine so that it is operating with a steady RPM and MAP reading. You can then adjust the Volumetric Efficiency value in the portion of the VE table that the engine is running in up or down to eliminate the exhaust gas correction. With zero correction, the fueling equation is using the straight VE value to determine the fuel pulse width required to meet the target AFR that you have set for that operating point. Assuming that you have entered the correct values for your fuel injector flows (might be a big if in my case), that VE should be the true VE of the engine at that operating point. Once I get all the values in the VE table (there are only 144 of them!) populated with ‘true’ values, I can then do fine steady state tuning by adjusting the target values for the AFR at each operating point. Having someone sitting in the car watching the laptop and adjusting the VE values on the fly is much quicker than taking a drive with the laptop set up in logging mode and then after the fact using a calculator to take a preliminary crack at the correct VE value and doing that correction with the engine off. We were able to get a good portion of the table in the under 3000 RPM, under 70 kpA area looking pretty good in the 2 hrs and about 50 km of driving. We would drive for a bit, he would adjust a couple of the VE table entries and then we would stop the car, shut the engine off and burn the entries (no burning entries on a running engine!). This makes it a little slower. We could have driven around and made all the adjustments and just done one final burn; however, I could see something happening like the laptop crashing and us losing all the changes. So, slower; but, safer. Unfortunately for my tuning effort, he is heading away to University next week so I am going to have to switch to using the logging function to complete the rest of the tune.
The engine was running quite rich. I had checked the sparkplugs a couple of times and they were pretty black and sooty. After our 2 hour tuning session, I pulled a couple of the plugs to see what they looked like.
The plugs suggest that it is still running on the rich side; but, they look much better than the initial runs. The initial VE table was definitely on the rich side to avoid doing any damage during the initial start-up. About 70% of the table entries still have those high initial VE values so it should not be a surprise that the plugs still look a little dark. To get a good plug reading I really need a new set of plugs; however, that will wait until I get the VE table entries more completely sorted.
When reading plugs, the only thing that indicates mixture is whether there's black soot on the central ceramic insulator or not. If there is soot all the way up to the electrode, it's way too rich. If the soot stops partway up the insulator, it's somewhat rich. You want to tune so the soot just recedes all the way down. If you go too lean, it won't look any different from the optimum mixture.
The color of the metal parts doesn't tell you a thing, nor do any tan, gray, violet or orange tint on the ceramic. There is either soot or there isn't, and soot is always black.
08-24-2014, 01:05 PM
I agree with everything that you have said.
Originally Posted by Phil Singher
When I started with my first guess safe VE table and trying to get the engine to a steady idle at a reasonable speed, the AFR reading in Tuner Studio was saying that my AFR was generally running 12 or less. I was initially a little concerned that this was incorrect and that I may have screwed up the O2 sensor calibration, so I pulled the plugs to check. Sure enough, the plug insulators were sooty black all the way to the center electrode. The fact that you can now see something other than black at the insulator tip indicates some change for the better. Now that I have some confidence in the output of the wideband O2 sensor, I am not using the plugs as a primary tuning tool. I will pull the plugs on occasion as a double check to confirm that I have not gone any place bad with the VE tables or that the O2 sensor has failed.
The high load portion of my VE table will still be really rich. I won't be able to get a reasonable looking plug until I get those values sorted.
08-24-2014, 04:40 PM
Great! 98% of wrenchers who go back far enough that reading plugs even occurs to them learned to do it wrong. I didn't get it straight myself for the first four decades I've been messing with this stuff...
08-28-2014, 11:08 AM
At the moment there is a power steering set from a 144 for sale in the Netherlands, it look likes it is from 1974 model. Unfortunately only one photo in the add. See: http://link.marktplaats.nl/m825476911
Last edited by rixt; 08-28-2014 at 11:11 AM.
08-28-2014, 12:26 PM
Originally Posted by rixt
Thanks for keeping my interest in power steering in mind; however, that particular unit does look a little too much like a 'bucket of parts'. At the vendors asking price, it would also be pretty pricey by the time it made it all the way to Saskatchewan. I would more inclined to go with the electric PS option.
I have been driving the car around a fair bit. The stock steering isn't bad for regular driving once the car is above about 5-10 km/hr. Cranking the steering wheel while the car is stopped is a definite work-out with my small steering wheel; but, this car is not my daily driver so that is less of an issue. For now, power steering is not a pressing issue. However, I will definitely maintain an interest.
09-01-2014, 06:46 PM
During my period of enforced down-time while I was waiting for parts to fix my brakes (which now work just fine), I worked on a couple of other items.
The car came with one of those dash mounted tachometers. Having installed a tach in the dash, I no longer required the dash mounted tach; which left me with a large hole in the dash.
I had talked to a couple of restoration specialists about repairing the hole; but, the general consensus was that it was too big to get an attractive repair. This left me with the option of substituting something to fit in the hole. I originally thought about covering it with my speedo GPS antenna (the square black box in the background in the photo; however, the hole was far enough back that I was concerned the antenna would have an obstructed view of the satellites. I finally decided that although I didn’t really need it, I would try mounting an AFR gauge. It so happens that the diameter of the Innovate AFR gauge fits perfectly in the bezel of the Volvo / smiths tach housing. Unfortunately, the Innovate gauge comes with a red pointer which does not match up with the white pointers on the rest of my Speedhut gauges; however, the black face and the font of the numbers on the Innovate gauge is a reasonable match to the Speedhut gauges.
I reprogrammed the second output on the Innovate wideband controller for a wideband output rather than a narrow band output and hooked the gauge up. It doesn’t look too bad, definitely better than the hole. I do notice that I have a slight difference between what the Innovate gauge reads and what Tuner Studio says the Megasquirt controller is reading. Since they Megasquirt and the gauge are running on different outputs from the LC1 controller, I will have to make sure that I programmed in the response curves correctly and that the default curve in Tuner Studio for the LC1 matches the curves in the LC1 controller.
While working on finishing off the interior for my trunk, I discovered that I had some water collecting in both of the wells behind the rear wheels. We had some pretty heavy rain storms and my initial reaction was that the trunk gasket was leaking, probably in the front corners where it looked like the gasket was not making contact with the car body. I spent a little time fiddling and repositioning the gasket and then did a test with the garden hose. Checking showed that I was still getting water in the trunk. I popped the trunk lid open and flooded the rear window with water. Water was draining off the rear window onto the lip around the edge of the trunk opening and then running out the back. However, I could see water dripping into the trunk from the bottom of the collector box that is below the extraction vent for the car interior. Water was clearly getting into the extraction vent which is OK. My initial reaction was that the drain tubes from the bottom of the collector box were not sealing; however, closer inspection showed that was not where the water was coming from.
At each end of the collector box, there is a large blob of what I assume to be butyl putty. A little more experimentation with the hose showed that the water was emerging from under the butyl putty blob. Turns out this putty is used to seal off a gap where the collector box joins the car body. This gap is shown circled in red in the photo below. The putty had gone rock hard and was no longer sealing the gap allowing a slow trickle of water into the trunk. I had to use an old ¼” chisel to chisel the putty out. After cleaning up the rust with some sandpaper, I sprayed the bare metal with some Eastwood Rust Encapsulator and then sealed up the hole and seam with urethane sealer which is a royal pain to work with particularly since this area is not easily accessible.
If you find that you have water in your trunk; but, can’t figure out where it is coming from, do a water test and for water entering under the butyl sealing putty on the collector box below the rear window extraction vents.
I have been driving around doing some more tuning. Things seem to be getting smoother or I am just getting used to the car. I have got it to the point where I have turned on the flash updates so that the Megasquirt can fine tune the VE table to match the target AFRs that I have set.
Every once in a while I will get a howl from the fuel pressure regulator and the AFR meter will show a brief swing to a high AFR. I think I am getting a momentary fuel supply problem; however, I don’t know whether my FPR is flakey, whether my pump is approaching its end of life or perhaps I am sucking some air from the fuel tank (I don’t have the fuel gauge calibrated yet so I am a little iffy on exactly how much gas is in the tank). I only put 20 l of gas into the tank and have been driving around a bit. Its possible that with the fuel sloshing around at low fuel level, I might be sucking some air. That is something that will bare a little investigation.
Last edited by 142 Guy; 09-01-2014 at 06:55 PM.
09-02-2014, 11:53 PM
I drained my gas tank. I needed to do it anyway to calibrate my fuel gauge. I collected about 5 - 6 l of gas so I am pretty much convinced that the pump was sucking air as the fuel sloshed around in the almost empty tank. I know for a fact that the suction tube does not reach the bottom of the tank so there are 1 or 2 l of gas that will never be accessible. I filled my tank to the top (also required to complete the gauge calibration process) and after driving around a bit did not get a repeat of the strange noises from the FPR.